James Webb Space Telescope closer to launch

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As we now forward to discover the hidden truth and know our own and neighbor galaxy, we are now going beyond the limits after the James Webb Space Telescope is created. It’s not just like other space telescopes let’s find out what is unique about it.

The James Webb Space Telescope Overview

A new and more powerful telescope is coming into this world ” James Webb Space Telescope.

JWST is more powerful in comparison to the Hubble Space Telescope.
The James Webb Space Telescope will greatly improve resolution and sensitivity over the Hubble Space Telescope. And will study across the astronomy, cosmology and investigated how old is our universe?. Other goals include understanding the formation of the galaxy and Black Hole. And studied astronomy and cosmology.

The primary mirror of JWST is composed of 18 hexagonal mirror segments that combine to create a 6.5-meter diameter mirror.
And Hubble’s mirror diameter is 2.4 meters.

The Hubble Space Telescope observes the universe to (0.1 to 1 micro-meter) spectra in the form of near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared electromagnetic waves.

Hubble observes high Redshift objects. Redshift means how far stars, planets, and supernova away from us. JWST observes the universe in the mid-infrared light(0.6 to 27 micrometers) lower frequency range in opposite long wavelength in visible light.

The telescope observes infrared light without any Interference. The temperature of the telescope is low.

The JWST is being developed by NASA, with manufacturing contribution European Space Agency and Canadian Space Agency. The JWST’s construction was completed in late 2016. After which its extensive testing phase began. In March 2018

NASA made complex Telescope(JSWT)

NASA delayed to James Webb space telescope launch and the launch was delayed again in 2018.

Features

Hubble space telescope is about half of the mass James Webb space telescope. But its primary mirror a 6.5-meter diameter gold-coated beryllium reflector. It’s five times bigger than the Hubble space telescope.
Mission type-Astronomy.

  • Operator- NASA/CSA/ESA
  • Manufacturer-Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace
  • Mass- 6500 kg
  • Dimensions-20.197×14.162 m
  • Power-2000 W
  • Launch date-March 30 2021
  • Rocket- Ariana 5ECAA
  • Reference system- Sun to Earth L2
  • Focal length-131.4 m
  • Collecting area-25.4 m2
  • Band-S band and Ka-band
  • Wavelength-0.6 to 28.5 micro-meter Orange to mid-infrared
  • Diameter-6.5 m

The Hubble space telescope mirror is maintained temperature about 15-degree Celsius (288 k).

JWST Sun shield protection:

Observation in the infrared spectrum through the JWST should be kept very cold temperature about -220-degree Celsius, it destroys telescopes by the Sun’s radiation.
For the protection from the Space radiation, the telescope instrument is constructed in the five layers of protection, Polyimide, aluminum, and silicon, etc. The sun shield protection is folded twelve times, So It can compact and fit in the spacecraft then unfold to protect the telescope.

James Webb Space Telescope Optics:

James Webb space telescope has a primary mirror 6.5-meter gold-coated beryllium reflector with a collecting area of 25-meter square.
This mirror is composed of 18 hexagonal segments. This is a terrestrial telescope that continually adjusts their mirrors segments using active optics to overcome the effect gravitational wave, wind and lack of environment.

JSWT made the optical design in using three-mirror anastigmat, which makes to adjust its position per second and provide images free of optical aberration according to the needs.
The primary mirror segment was first installed in 2016, and the secondary mirror installed on March 3, 2016.


JWST Spacecraft Bus :

James Webb space telescope support on the Primary Spacecraft Bus, and spacecraft bus computing the communication to the Earth and bringing the different parts of the JWST together. In James Webb space telescope two major elements are integrated (ISIM) Integrated Science Instrument Module and the other (OTE) Optical Telescope Element.

The Spacecraft Bus is connected to Optical Telescope Element and also connected to the sun shield. The Developers develop Spacecraft Bus structure support weight approximate 6.5 ton, while itself weight of about 350 kg and Spacecraft Bus is made up of graphite composite materials. And it was assembled in California in 2015.

The Spacecraft Bus faced towards the Sun, So it can be operated on the temperature which is near about 300k. Everything on the sun-facing side so must be able to handle the thermal condition of halo orbit, which has one side in continuous sunlight and the other in the shade of the spacecraft sun-shield.
And another way Spacecraft Bus is connected memory storage and central computing, Software process all Data to solid-state memory(SSD), through the radio signals, and all Data sends to the Earth.

James Webb Space Telescope Instruments’s:

NameYearWavelengthApertureCooling
Human eye0.2 million years ago0.39–0.75 μm0.007 mPassive
IRT19851.7–118 μm0.15 mHelium
ISO19952.5–240 μm0.60 mHelium
Hubble STIS19970.115–1.03 μm2.4 mPassive
Hubble NICMOS19970.8–2.4 μm2.4 mNitrogen, later cryocooler
Spitzer20033–180 μm0.85 mHelium
Hubble WFC320090.2–1.7 μm2.4 mPassive + Thermo-electric 
Herschel200955–672 μm3.5 mHelium
JWSTPlanned0.6–28.5 μm6.5 mPassive + cryocooler (MIRI)

James Webb Space Telescope Missions:

The JSWT has four major missions, to search the first light from the first stars and galaxies and hydrogen atom how to expand Universe after the Big Bang, to study the formation and evolution of stars, planets, and galaxies. And to understand the Origin of life and planetary system.

JWST will measure infrared light, how to look cosmos in infrared, through the infrared light we can access the past our cosmos.
Hubble Space Telescope will measure visible or ultraviolet light. And JWST gathers information on the dimming light stars. Hubble has not found dimming light stars and planets.

The JWST will survey Saturn and its moon Titan. The James Webb space telescope launch on an Ariana 5 rocket in 2021.

Scientific instruments: The (ISIM) Integrated Science Instrument Module provide in James Webb space telescope computing resources, cooling capacity, electric power, communication structures stability telescope. The ISIM holds the four science instruments in the Telescope.

James Webb Space Telescope Infrared astronomy:

JWST able to see many more and much older stars, Black-hole, wormhole, and galaxies. Infrared is the key to achieving see the older stars, our universe and after the BIG BANG. The telescope cannot see dust and gases, Clearly see the dimmer, cooler objects and much older stars. Many stars younger it appears, its light has taken longer to reach human observers.universe is expanding, as the light travels it becomes red-shifted.

Red Shift Light

Near InfraRed Spectrograph(NIR Spec):→

The NIR Spec to identify spectroscopy at the same wavelength. And NIR Spec developed by European Space Agency.
The NIR Spec observes a low-resolution mode by using a prism.

Near InfraRed Camera(NIRCam):→

NIR Cam is an Infrared imager and will have coverage edge of visible light(0.6 micrometers). And NIRCam was developed by the University of Arizona.

Mid-InfraRed Instrument(MIRI):→

MIRI observes mid-range infrared wavelength range from 5 to 27 micrometers, MIRI was built by NASA.

Fine Guidance Sensor and Near InfraRed Imager and Slit less Spectrograph (FGS/NIRISS):→

FGS/NIRISS led by the Canadian Space Agency, observe astronomical imaging in the 0.8 to 5-micrometer wavelength range.

Review:

NASA is building a very good effort by creating the James Webb Space Telescope. By this, we can see very old stars and galaxies. And the formation of stars and the beginning of the Big Bang.
Through the infrared light and observe our universe and how old our universe?. And many rumors tell us to detect Dark matter and Dark energy. To build the JSWT many parabolic mirrors use for the capture huge picture for the observable universe.

Check out Our Previous Post Chandrayaan 2.

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