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WHAT MAKES India is the 1st country to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region. It’s the First India mission(Chandrayaan 2) to explore the lunar terrain with the home-grown technology. India is the 4th country ever to soft-land on the lunar surface.

Chandrayaan 2 is the second mission after Chandrayaan 1. This lunar exploration mission developed by ISRO(Indian space research organization).

The mission was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2:44 PM. This mission successfully lands to the moon by the use of satellite (GSLV Mk 3) GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE MARK 3.

So basically its mission has divided into three parts. The first one is a lunar orbiter, the second one is a lender and the third one is a lunar rover named PRAGYAN, all these three satellites developed by ISRO in INDIA.

A security guard stands behind the logo of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) at its headquarters in Bengaluru, India, June 12, 2019. REUTERS/Francis Mascarenhas

So this mission planned by ISRO scientists talks that the lander and rover will land on the Moon, in south polar region at a latitude of about 70 degrees, and Chandrayaan 2 successfully land on the moon on 7 September 2019.

India is the fourth country to achieve a successful landing on the moon, after the USSR, USA, and China.

The main aim of this Project:

The Chandrayaan 2 mission major object is to the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface, and ISRO Scientist operates a robotic rover on the surface.

Include the scientific goals of the Chandrayaan 2 mission is that study of the atmosphere of the moon and lunar exosphere elemental abundance and signature of water and hydroxyl, the orbiter will give a 3D map of the moon surface to the very easy study of the moon surface, so this was very helpful for the ISRO scientist.

And the main object to study of the moon south polar region because no one country to try it to land the moon south pole because of the moon’s south polar region is the dark and the hidden from it, always through the moon orbit. So many secret’s hidden always, south polar region but now ISRO try to it opens the secrets to the worldwide.


The orbiter will moon orbit an altitude of approximately 100 km above from the moon surface, this carries a total of eight instruments, two of them improved versions from the Chandrayaan 1.

The orbiter resolution camera (OHRC) will conduct high-resolution photos of the moon surface the whole orbiter is manufactured by Hindustan aeronautics limited.


Initially, the ISRO partnership with Russia to perform Chandrayaan 2, Russia agency agreement with the ISRO that Russia manufacturing two satellites first one is Orbiter and second Lander in 2013.

But Russia pulled his out of the agreement because that the Russia agencies planned that Roscosmos’s Phobos-Grunt mission Martian moon of Phobos was failed in December 2011, because of that Russia’s lander construction was delayed for the Phobos mission.

Then some space agencies including to NASA partnership to the ISRO to manufacturing Orbiter and lander but ISRO canceled all partnership ISRO proceeded with the mission on its own.

List of the instruments which are used on the orbiter –

  • TMC-2 (Terrain mapping camera 2), which will use 3D mapping of the lunar surface.
  • CLASS (Collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer), which will map the minerals on the surface.
  • Solar X-ray Monitor(XSM), the study of emissions of solar x-ray.Chandra Atmospheric Composition Explorer, its neutral mass spectrometer.
  • (SAR) Synthetic Aperture Radar performed that map the moon’s surface in radio waves.
  • (IIRS) Imaging infra-red spectrometer, finding the abundance of water and hydroxyl on the moon’s surface.
  • Chandra Atmospheric Composition Explorer, its neutral mass spectrometer.
  • (SAR) Synthetic Aperture Radar performed that map the moon’s surface in radio waves.
  • (IIRS) Imaging infra-red spectrometer, finding the abundance of water and hydroxyl on the moon’s surface.

Orbiter features list:

  • Dimensions:
  • Power generation capacity: 1000W
  • Gross lift-off mass: 2379kg
  • Dry mass: 626kg

Vikram lander:

Father of the Indian space program Vikram Sarabhai, so decided that name of the lander Vikram Sarabhai lander, but because of the name its widely, then Vikram Sarabhai lander name changed to Vikram lander the mission’s lander is called Vikram lander.

The Vikram lander will detach from the moon orbiter, and perform activities for 14 days. The approximate mass of the lander with the rover is 1471kg. Vikram lander targeted to location about 600 km from the south polar region, which is the first mission in the world whose challenged touches the equator.

Vikram Lander

ISRO chair Kailasavandivoo Sivan said that ISRO plans many challenging missions in the future such things as an asteroid or Mars, and sending a spacecraft to Venus. The lander expected (one lunar day) or 14 earth days.

Does the lander detect the moon’s rocks’ old age: at 4 billion years old? But NASA not directly participating in this mission but the measurements are taken by Chandrayaan 2 could be helpful for in the future through by NASA.

Vikram lander instruments list:

  • (ILSA) The instrument for lunar seismic Activity to detect the moonquakes.
  • (ChaSTE) Chandra Surface Thermophysical Experiment to study the surface thermal properties.
  • (RAMBHAA-Langmuir Probe) Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere to examine plasma density on the moon’s surface.

Vikram lander features:

  • Dimension: 2.5421.2m
  • Gross lift-off mass: 1471kg
  • Dry mass: 626kg
  • Power generation capability: 650W

Pragyan rover:

The mission rover is called Pragyan and it’s mass about 27 kg, and the rover operates through the solar power radiated by the sun in the form of gamma rays, so solar power is very high power generate and its efficiency high.

Pragyan rover

The rover will move on the moon through the own 6 wheels distance traveled by 1cm per second, collect all data from the moon surface analysis and sending the data to the lander, which will relay it to the ISRO through the navigation, use the rover.

Stereoscopic camera-based 3D vision will provide the ground control team and after that analysis the 3D vision help in path making by generating digital model, IIT Kanpur also contributed to the development of 3D map and motion planning for the rover.

The rover will carry two science instruments of the surface:

  • Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy(LIBS)
  • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer(APXS).

Pragyan rover features:

  • 1′ Dimension:0.90.750.85m
  • 2′ Power:50W
  • 3′ Travel speed: 1cm/sec.


The orbiter has selected eight scientific instruments, four for the lander and two for the rover and two for the orbiter. The huge data collected from the lander, orbiter, and rover is collected by the ISRO and then it’s shared by other agencies like NASA or ESA to observes the data and analysis the report from ISRO.

Chandrayaan 2 Payload


Chandrayaan 2 first launch has planned 14 July 2019 UTC(15 July 2019 IST local time), for the technical glitch launch was aborted for 56 minutes and 24 seconds and then launch has rescheduled 22 July 2019.

The Chandrayaan 2 mission was launched through the GSLV MK3 M1 vehicle on 22 July 2019 at 09:13 UTC.

Earth-orbit burns:

  • The first orbit burns
  • 48 seconds
  • 230 km above from the earth’s surface
  • The second orbit burns
  • 883 seconds
  • 54829 km above from the earth’s surface
  • The third orbit burns
  • 989 seconds
  • 71792 km above from the earth’s surface
  • The fourth orbit burns
  • 646 seconds
  • 89472 km above from the earth’s surface
  • The fifth orbit burns
  • 1041 seconds
  • 142975 km above from the earth’s surface
  • Trans lunar injection
  • 1203 seconds


Brilliant scientists and engineers who were developed of Chandrayaan 2 projects listed below mentioned we got just a few important of them:

Team of Chandrayaan 2
  • Muthayya Vanitha (Project Director, Chandrayaan 2)
  • Ritu Karidhai (Mission Director, Chandrayaan 2)
  • Chandrakanta Kumar (Deputy Project Director, Chandrayaan 2)
  • Mylswamy Annadurai (Project Director, Chandrayaan 2)

Chandrayaan 2 mission launched successfully Meet women power behind this mission:

Chandrayaan 2 mission was led by two brilliant women scientists Muthayya Vanitha and Ritu Karidhal. Muthayya Vanitha was project Director of Chandrayaan 2 and Ritu Karidhall was working as Mission Director.

Muthayya Vanita has also awarded for the best woman scientist in the year 2006. Ritu Karidhal holds a master’s degree in the field of Aerospace Engineering from IISC. Ritu Karidhal is a Young scientist awarded by former president APJ Abdul Kalam in 2007.


It is good that ISRO is working like this, it is also beating the space agency like NASA, which is a matter of pride for all Indians.

ISRO started working at a small level and now ISRO has and achieved so much in such a short time and so on because all of this one day India will be the first country to do this and other countries will ask us for helping them and this will be the real and biggest proud moment for India.

So congrats to all of our brilliant scientist for all the hard work they did and whatever will happen with the Chandrayaan 2 we will always be with our greatest scientist.

Chandrayaan 2 wiki: Click here
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